Weld Symbols on a Drawing – Refresh Your Knowledge - ANSI/AWS A2.4-79
The eight elements which may appear in a welding symbol are:- reference line, arrow, basic weld symbols, dimensions and other data, supplementary symbols, finish symbols, tail and specification and process or other reference. Let us discuss the one by one.
Reference Line: This is the basis of the welding symbol. All other elements are oriented with respect to this line. The arrow is affixed to one end and a tail, when necessary, is affixed to the other.
Arrow: This connects the reference line to one side of the joint in the case of groove, fillet, flange, and flash or upset welding symbols. This side of the joint is known as the arrow side of the joint. The opposite side is known as the other side of the joint. In the case of plug, slot, projection, and seam welding symbols, the arrow connects the reference line to the outer surface of one of the members of the joint at the center line of the weld. In this case the member to which the arrow points is the arrow side member: the other member is the other side member. In the case of bevel and J-groove weld symbols, a two-directional arrow pointing toward a member indicates that the member is to be chamfered.
Basic Weld Symbols: These designate the type of welding to be performed. The basic symbols which are shown in the table Basic Weld Symbols are placed approximately in the center of the reference line, either above or below it or on both sides of it as shown in above figure. Welds on the arrow side of the joint are shown by placing the weld symbols on the side of the reference line towards the reader (lower side). Welds on the other side of the joint are shown by placing the weld symbols on the side of the reference line away from the reader
Supplementary Symbols: These convey additional information relative to the extent of the welding, where the welding is to be performed, and the contour of the weld bead. The “weld-all-around” and “field” symbols are placed at the end of the reference line at the base of the arrow as shown in first figure and the table Supplementary Weld Symbols.
Dimensions: These include the size, length, spacing, etc., of the weld or welds. The size of the weld is given to the left of the basic weld symbol and the length to the right. If the length is followed by a dash and another number, this number indicates the center-to-center spacing of intermittent welds. Other pertinent information such as groove angles, included angle of countersink for plug welds and the designation of the number of spot or projection welds are also located above or below the weld symbol. The number designating the number of spot or projection welds is always enclosed in parentheses.
Contour and Finish Symbols: The contour symbol is placed above or below the weld symbol. The finish symbol always appears above or below the contour symbol. The following finish symbols indicate the method, not the degrees of finish: C—chipping; G—grinding; M—machining; R—rolling; and H—hammering.
Tail: The tail which appears on the end of the reference line opposite to the arrow end is used when a specification, process, or other reference is made in the welding symbol. When no specification, process, or other reference is used with a welding symbol, the tail may be omitted.